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We are now going to look at the chain of infection and the universal precautions that we should take during a resuscitation situation. It is all too easy to forget to protect ourselves in a high-pressure situation where we need to act quick, but we have got a duty of care to our patients and to ourselves and to our colleagues not to spread infection. Infection can be spread between patients and ourselves and colleagues, by any method if contact with human's blood, faeces, urine, to name a few.

The universal precautions that we should take include the use of gloves and this means applying gloves correctly at the correct time prior to touching patients and also removing the glove and disposing of them correctly at the end or before touching another patient. It is always worth considering at this stage as well that the gloves may contain forensic evidence and could later be used by the police or the scenes of crime people to gather evidence regarding the crime scene.

In the hospital setting, gowns are available and should be worn where body fluids or the risk of cross-contamination is a possibility. Face masks can be used to completely cover the eyes and the face and the nose and the mouth where it is easy for infection to enter our bodies.

In a cardiac arrest scenario, particularly a traumatic cardiac arrest where there is blood, it is easy for that blood to be splashed around during certain procedures and our mouth and nose and eyes are really good access points for viruses and bacteria to enter.

Following the use of any disposable equipment that we use for infection control, it should all be disposed of appropriately, normally in a yellow clinical waste bag, but please be guided by your local authority and the colour coding scheme that you use in your facility.

After we have removed our gloves, it is essential that we wash our hands. It is not appropriate to use alcohol without occasionally using warm soapy water to remove any infection from any exposed skin and this includes washing up to our elbows, we should be bare from the elbows down anyway apart from just wearing one ring. There are key times when we need to wash our hands and it is after touching every patient, before touching another patient, before and after eating and using the toilet and smoking. Please also remember that equipment needs to be cleaned thoroughly according to local protocols prior to being used again.